To continue, I am now going to have to use the language of sheaves. For it, and for all details I will omit here, I refer the reader to Charles Siegel’s post at Rigorous Trivialties and Hartshorne’s Algebraic Geometry. When I talk about sheaf cohomology, it will always be the derived functor cohomology. I will briefly review some of these ideas.

Sheaf cohomology

The basic properties of this are as follows.

First, if ${X}$ is a topological space and ${i \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geq 0}}$, then ${H^i(X, \cdot)}$ is a covariant additive functor from sheaves on ${X}$ to the category of abelian groups. We have

$\displaystyle H^0(X,\mathcal{F}) = \Gamma(X,\mathcal{F}),$

that is to say, the global sections. Also, if

$\displaystyle 0 \rightarrow \mathcal{F} \rightarrow \mathcal{G} \rightarrow \mathcal{H} \rightarrow 0$

is a short exact sequence of sheaves, there is a long exact sequence

$\displaystyle H^i(X,\mathcal{F}) \rightarrow H^i(X, \mathcal{G})\rightarrow H^i(X, \mathcal{H}) \rightarrow H^{i+1}(X,\mathcal{F}) \rightarrow \dots .$

Finally, sheaf cohomology (except at 0) vanishes on injectives in the category of sheaves.

In other words, sheaf cohomology consists of the derived functors of the (left-exact) global section functor. (more…)